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Vikram Samvat Calendar

Vikram Samvat calendar has been started by King of Malwa or Avantika (Modern day Ujjain in State of Madhya Pradesh in India) and named after him. His name was Vikramaditya and belongs to Parmar dynasty. King Vikramaditya born in 102 BC and died in 15 AD. In his time the state of Malwa as very rich in languages and grammar (mainly Sanskrit), culture, art and literature.

Vikram Samvat is the type of calendar used in some parts of India especially in the state of Gujarat. Gujarati Calendar is basically Vikram Samvat Calendar. It is said to be started in 56 BC as Vikramaditya was immerged as winner in the war against Saka. This calendar is adopted by solanki king of Anhilwad Patan named Sidhdhraj Jaysinh (About in 11th and 12th Century AD) and then after it becomes very popular in Gujarat.

Vikram Samvat calendar is based on lunar month. New lunar month starts in next day after every New Moon Day, which is known as Ekam or Padvo (Ekam mean First). Vikram Samvat Year is basically a Lunar Year is made up of 12 Lunar Months. Though it is lunar calendar but adjusted by Adhik Maas to synchronize with Solar Year.


These 12 months are listed below…

Hindi Name
Relative Gregorian Month
Kartik
October - November
Mrugshirsh
November - December
Paush
December - January
Magh
January - February
Falgun
February - March
Chaitra
March - April
Vaishakh
April - May
Jyeshth
May - June
Ashadh
June - July
Shravan
July - August
Bhadrapad
August – September
Ashvin
September - October

Average length of each lunar month in this calendar is 30 days. But it might be 29 or 31 days depending upon the motion of Moon.

Each lunar month is divided in two parts named Shukla Paksh and Krushna Paksh.

First day of shukla paksh starts next day after new moon day which is known as Sud Ekam. Last day shukla paksh is full moon day which is known as Poonam or Purnima. In this paksh of month Moon rised its phases and becomes more and more white, so it’s called shukla means white. Normally it has fifteen days marked as Ekam, Bij, Trij, Choth, Pancham, Chhath, Satam, Atham, Nom, Dasham, Agiyaras, Baras, Teras, Chaudash and Poonam. All tithis in shukla paksh is prefixed by Sud. First day of this paksh is also first day of lunar month.

First day of krushna paksh starts on next day of full moon day and known as Vad Ekam. Last day krushna paksh falls on new moon day and known as Amas or Amavsya. In this part of month moon phases falls and moon becomes darker and darker, so it’s called krushna mean black. Eventually last day krushna paksh is last day of lunar month. Normally it has fifteen days marked as Ekam, Bij, Trij, Choth, Pancham, Chhath, Satam, Atham, Nom, Dasham, Agiyaras, Baras, Teras, Chaudash and Amas. All tithis in krushna paksh is prefixed by Vad. Last day of this paksh is also last day of lunar month.

Each paksh not exactly equal to 15 days as motion of the moon varies. So there would be some Vrudhdhi or Kshya tithi requires to adjust. That is an extra tithi or decay or tithi.

Vikram Samvat calendar is lunar calendar which is completed average on 355 days, while solar year is of 365/366 days. So this calendar is adjusted by Adhik Maas to synchronize with solar year.



Vikram Samvat calendar has average 355 days in a year. While solar or Gregorian calendar has 365 days or 366 days (Leap year). So every year the gap of 10 days is there. So at every third year an Adhik Maas is added in calendar to adjust it with solar year. More precisely adhik mass is added after average 32.5 months. It is also known as purshottam maas.

As per vedik style normally Sun is transits from one zodiac sign to another on around 15th of every gregorian month. But in adhik maas Sun remains in one zodiac and not transit to other zodiac sign. This adhik maas is named after lunar month in which next zodiac sign transit of sun occurs and prefixed by “Adhik”.


Adhik Maghshar Maas never falls, and Adhik Kartak Maas falls just once in the span of 250 years. Last Adhik Kartak Maas occurs in the year 1963 AD.